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Roman View of Afterlife Through the Performing Arts, Annotated Bibliography Example

Pages: 6

Words: 1760

Annotated Bibliography

Edwards, Catharine. Death In Ancient Rome. London: Yale Univ Pr, 2007. 19-20. Print.

In her book, Catharine Edwards states that the Romans view death as an active and not a passive process, which strove to reveal the true character of an individual. She portrays death as means of communication to the living. Through death, a person’s true personality was revealed. In her work, Catherine draws on the great works of Roman poets, philosophers and historians such as Cicero, Seneca, Tertullian and Lucretius. To the Romans, death was viewed as an exhibition, and the deaths that are mainly recorded in history are those that were extremely violent such as murders and executions. Edwards explores the culture of death in ancient Rome, and this helps in my understanding of how the Romans incorporated the afterlife in to their performing arts such as poetry and mythical stories.

Kyle, Donald G. Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome. New York: Rutledge, 2001. 30, 130. Print.

This book inventively gives the slaughter of humans and animals in ancient Rome. It brings out the unquenchable desire for violent exhibitions in ancient Rome. The author combines the words from current scholarly work, cross-cultural perspectives and ancient writers to explore the historical development of games, the savage treatment meted on defiant Christians, the intricate religious and ritual features of institutionalized violence, and the victims of the violence and the criteria used for their selection. The Romans derived entertainment through bloody combats in arenas to symbolic executions. This book helps in the understanding of the afterlife in ancient Rome and how death was incorporated into performing arts such as gladiatorial combats.

Seneca, Lucius. Apocolocyntosis. Cambridge University Press, 2003. 9. eBook. <http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10001/10001-h/10001-h.htm>.

This book use prose-and-verse satire from the roman world. Satire, which is mainly associated with the Romans, is one of the only remaining types of ancient literature that are still in use today. The author of the book is gifted with intellectual virtuosity was also responsible with the development of the Nero. The gourdification of Claudius, who is the victim of his spiteful humor, has an immediate and permanent appeal on the reader.  The book is about the death of Claudius, his ascent to heaven, judgment and his eventual journey to hell. The author mocks the emperor for his personal failures especially his cruelty. This book uses satire, to highlight roman believes about the afterlife basing on Christian beliefs.

Sumi, Geoffrey. “. Impersonating the Dead: Mimes at Roman Funerals.” American Journal of Philology. 123.4 (2002): 559-585. Web. 6 Oct. 2012. <http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/american_journal_of_philology/v123/123.4sumi.pdf>.

This work tells about the celebration of funeral ceremonies among ancient Romans. In ancient Rome, funeral had a theatrical touch because musicians and dancing satires were among those in the funeral procession. There was also excessive grief among some mourners who appeared to be pretending. There was the performance by the chief actor who wore a mask that portrayed the looks of the deceased and clothing that symbolized the highest honors and offices that the diseased had attained. Through music and theater, the Romans were able to bring the death briefly into life in discolored structure. The theatrical performance by the main dancer mimicked the physical and features and movements of the death.

Nosotro, Rit. “Monotheism and Polytheism.” Hyperhistory.net. Hyperhistory.net, 2010. Web. 12 Oct 2012. <http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/cot/t0w03monopolytheism.htm>.

This source focuses on monotheism and polytheism. The origin of monotheism and polytheism is a controversial topic among different groups and religions. Monotheism is belief in a single God while on the other hand polytheism is belief an in many gods. According to this source, monotheism is traced to Adam and Eve although other traces them to Abraham and Mosses. Polytheism is traced to de-evolvement of monotheism as people wanted gods that they could personally control. Others belief that monotheism came from polytheism because it is more advanced than polytheism. This source was not helpful in creating the paper on how three cultures incorporated afterlife into their performing arts because it fails to discuss death or performing arts.

“Unit 3: Week 3.” The Afterlife in the History of Art. The Art Institute of Pittsburgh – Online, n.d. Web. 12 Oct 2012

This source is about Zoroastrianism, which is considered to be one of the original monotheistic religions. It is practiced in the modern day and is though to be a bridge between eastern and western religious practices. This religion accepts the belief that here are also gods, acknowledges the presence of lesser spirits and the divinity of the elements. All worship in this religion is centered on Ahuramazda or those worthy of worship. This source was important in developing the paper on how three cultures incorporated afterlife into their performing arts because some of the beliefs of this religion are the belief in the immortal souls, reward or punishment in afterlife, Day of Judgment and resurrection of the body.

V, Jayaram. “Jayaram, V. Main Beliefs of Zoroastrianism.” Hinduwebsite.com. Hinduwebsite.com, 10/12/2012. Web. 12 Oct 2012. <http://www.hinduwebsite.com/zoroastrianism LINK DEAD AS OF 10/18/2012.

This article compares the religious beliefs of the Jayaram, a Hindu religion and Zoroastrianism. These two religions share same religious practices such as the belief in a monotheistic God, punishment, sanctity of life, divinity of the elements and existence of other gods. There are notable differences such as the belief in reincarnation by the Jayaram. This article was not helpful in developing my paper because it fails to link performing art and after in the two religions.

“Zoroastrianism Major Beliefs.” The Shangra-la Mission. shangrala.org, 2010. Web. 12 Oct 2012. <http://www.shangrala.org/father/RELIGIONS/12Zoroastrianism/Zoroast_beliefs.html

This resource is bout the main beliefs of Zoroastrianism. Their first belief is that of a universal and supreme God, Ahuramazda, Who is omnipresent and omnipotent God. The other beliefs are: divinity of creation by God, duality of existence, spiritual nature of humans and the world, belief in many gods, common goodness of humanity, sanctity of elements, life after death, tradition of the prophets, sin and its punishment, effectiveness of sacrificial practices, judgment day, significance of righteousness and effectiveness of religious chants. This source is not helpful in the development of the paper on the incorporation of afterlife into performing arts by three cultures because it does not discuss performing arts in relation to afterlife.

Dawson, Jane. “The Reformation Brings New Approach to Sacred Music.” Fordham University. Fordham.edu, 22 2012. Web. 18 Oct 2012. <http://www.fordham.edu/Campus_Resources/enewsroom/topstories_1947.asp>.

This resource explores the development of music during the reformation by the Protestants. According to this article, performance of sacred music in the middle ages was by professional who could decipher its meanings from the polyphonic structure. Because Protestants were afraid of the influence of music, they restricted it to the words of the gospel. They also advocated that church music must be audible and understandable leading to the whole church participating in singing. The article associates the departure from polyphonic music to vocal divisions to the protestant reformation. This article explains the development of sacred music, which is performing art during reformation, but does not aid in developing the paper on how three cultures incorporated the afterlife into performing art.

Flynn, Lucille. “A Brief History of Catholic Church Music.” Overheard in the Sacristy. WordPress.com, 27 2008. Web. 18 Oct 2012. <http://overheardinthesacristy.wordpress.com/2008/04/27/a-brief-history-of-catholic-church-music/>.

This article outlines a brief history of the Catholic Church music. It starts on the six rhythmic styles that formed the basis for the verses of the Mass Ordinary. The use of chants that originated from the Old Testament chants was advocated by Pope St. Gregory. Gregorian chants, as they were known reached its developmental peak in the medieval ages.  It is during this period that Dies Irae was written by Thomas Celano. This was followed by counterpoint leading to development of the keyboard to generate multiple sounds. During this age, the golden age of poetry, music, architecture and art was realized. The present mode of chants was developed in France by Dom Andre Mocquereau. Although this article explores the development of catholic music, a performing art, it does not relate it with afterlife.

“Secular spaces and the Baroque.” Victoria and Albert Museum. Vam.ac.uk, n.d. Web. 18 Oct 2012. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/s/secular-spaces-and-the-baroque/

In this article, the theatre and the square are discussed as the secular spaces that were used in the production of opera, ballet ad drama. These performances utilized intricate stage settings, creative tools, elaborate costumes, to generate wonder and admiration. The theatre was popular among the commoners and the nobility for example the Opera Atys. In this opera, one of the dancers, known as Hercules dons a roman-style costume. The square was signification in hosting events of national interest such as coronation, celebrations of royal birthdays and military victories. Baroque city is one of the venues for these sophisticated exhibitions. This article gives an in-depth examination of the major venues used to exhibit performing arts, and it is in development of the paper on incorporation of performing arts in afterlife by three cultures.

Vaubel, Roland. “Journal of Cultural Economics.” Journal of Cultural Economics. 29.4 (2005): 277-97. Print. <http://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/jculte/v29y2005i4p277-297.html

This journal article discusses the role of competition between neighboring states on cultural innovation by examining the accessible quantitative facts.  The second section of the journal starts with the assumption that European instrumental music advanced during the Baroque period. The most famous composers of the ear hailed from the two most fragmented countries of the period; Germany and Italy. It insinuates that musical composition was promoted by this political fragmentation. The reformation also promoted the rivalry between protestant and catholic composers. The fourth section argues that competition between the church and the courts had a big impact on European history. From this article, the role of music in the afterlife is not discussed; therefore it does no help in the development of the paper.

Works Cited

“Secular spaces and the Baroque.” Victoria and Albert Museum. Vam.ac.uk, n.d. Web. 18 Oct 2012. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/s/secular-spaces-and-the-baroque/

“Zoroastrianism Major Beliefs.” The Shangra-la Mission. shangrala.org, 2010. Web. 12 Oct 2012. <http://www.shangrala.org/father/RELIGIONS/12Zoroastrianism/Zoroast_beliefs.html

“Unit 3: Week 3.” The Afterlife in the History of Art. The Art Institute of Pittsburgh – Online, n.d. Web. 12 Oct 2012

Edwards, Catharine. Death In Ancient Rome. London: Yale Univ Pr, 2007. 19-20. Print.

Flynn, Lucille. “A Brief History of Catholic Church Music.” Overheard in the Sacristy. WordPress.com, 27 2008. Web. 18 Oct 2012. <http://overheardinthesacristy.wordpress.com/2008/04/27/a-brief-history-of-catholic-church-music/>.

Kyle, Donald G. Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome. New York: Rutledge, 2001. 30, 130. Print.

Nosotro, Rit. “Monotheism and Polytheism.” Hyperhistory.net. Hyperhistory.net, 2010. Web. 12 Oct 2012. <http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/cot/t0w03monopolytheism.htm>.

Nosotro, Rit. “Monotheism and Polytheism.” Hyperhistory.net. Hyperhistory.net, 2010. Web. 12 Oct 2012. <http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/cot/t0w03monopolytheism.htm>.

Seneca, Lucius. Apocolocyntosis. Cambridge University Press, 2003. 9. eBook. <http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10001/10001-h/10001-h.htm>.

V, Jayaram. “Jayaram, V. Main Beliefs of Zoroastrianism.” Hinduwebsite.com. Hinduwebsite.com, 10/12/2012. Web. 12 Oct 2012. <http://www.hinduwebsite.com/zoroastrianism LINK DEAD AS OF 10/18/2012.

Vaubel, Roland. “Journal of Cultural Economics.” Journal of Cultural Economics. 29.4 (2005): 277-97. Print. <http://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/jculte/v29y2005i4p277-297.html

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