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Sister Callista Roy, Outline Example

Pages: 4

Words: 1035

Outline

Background of the Theorist

  • Sister Callista Roy Highly respected theorist, writer, lecturer, researcher and teacher
  • She was born on October 14, 1939 in Los Angeles, California
  • Even though she is well-known for her contributions to the field of nursing, she worked as a pantry girl at a general hospital at the age of 14, then as a maid, and then finally as a nurse’s aide, where she became involved in the nursing field.
  • Around the same time, she entered the Sisters of Saint Joseph of Carondelet, of which she has been a member for over 40 years. Sister Roy’s influence came largely from her mother, who was a licensed vocational nurse and instilled in her the values of getting to know more about people and their care, and of selfless giving as a nurse
  • She is best known for the development of the Roy Adaptation Model, in which she considers that humans are holistic, adaptive systems
  • Thus, we can use a systems understanding to determine how humans interact with their environments.

Purpose of the Theory

  • Adaptation is formally defined as the process and outcome in which individuals and groups become integrated with their environment through conscious choices (Butt & Rich, 2010)
  • Therefore, the adaptation theory promotes integrity in terms of human beings’ goals: survival, growth, reproduction, mastery, and personal and environmental transformation (Butt & Rich, 2010)
  • Each individual part of a body has a purpose that has greater functionality when considered as a whole (Roy, 2012)
  • Innate and acquired mechanisms for biological, psychological, and social adaptation can be used in part to gain an understanding of human health

Concepts of Theory

  • The adaptation theory focuses on the interactions of individuals with their internal and external environment
  • Specifically, environment is defined as “every condition, circumstance and influence surrounding and affecting, particularly mutual, individual and group development and behavior” (Roy, 2012)
  • Using this theory, the health of individuals is broadly defined as the need to maximize wellbeing
  • Furthermore, health is recognized as interactions involved in holistic systems (Butt & Rich, 2010).
  • Two concepts are unique to this theory: a regulator mechanism allows for coping and adapting in a manner that is concerned with neural, endocrine, and perception-psychomotor processes and a cognator mechanism focuses on perception, learning, judgment, and emotion (Roy, 2012)
  • Basic theoretical assertions include the understand that a person is a bio-psycho-social being (Roy Adaptation Model, 2013)
  • Furthermore, persons have mutual relationships with the world and God
  • Since the person is in constant interaction with a changing environment, to cope with a changing world, a person uses coping mechanisms, both innate and acquired, which are biological, psychological, and social in origin (Roy Adaptation Model, 2013)

Definitions of Theory

  • Although many definitions related to the theory are necessary to help understand the conceptual background, additional definitions related to this theory include an understanding of the regulator subsystem (RS) and cognator subsystem (CS)
  • The RS receives input from the external environment and from changes in the person’s internal state and processes it through neural chemical endocrine channels
  • The CS receives input from external and internal stimuli that involves psychological, social, physical, and physiological factors and processes it through cognitive pathways (Creasia & Friberg, 2011)

Relationship and Structure of the Theory

  • Change is inevitable; one’ s physical and psychosocial interactions along with the environment are constantly changing
  • These changes can impact an individual positively or negatively but this constant change becomes the driving force of human adaptation
  • The adaptation model suggests that multiple interdependent systems make up the world with each system guiding one another
  • Because energy is needed to maintain an organizational state and a dysfunction in one system has an effect on other systems, these understandings can be used to direct the health of patients (Whetsell, Gonzalez & Moreno-Fergusson, 2010)
  • Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptation theory states that an area of concern in Roy’s Adaption model is that adaption is disrupted when an individual’s system is unable to adequately response to internal and external environmental stimuli (Whetsell, Gonzalez & Moreno-Fergusson, 2010)

Assumptions of the Theory

  • The adaptation theory is based on two assumptions: humanism and veritivity
  • Humanism is defined as a shared idea and movement in philosophy and psychology that values the ability of humans to think logically and critically rather than operating strictly on policy
  • Veritivity is defined as “a principle of human nature that affirms a common purposefulness of human existence”
  • Sister Callista Roy describes the living system as totalities that are made of parts that are united by a purpose and not just a cause-effect relationship
  • The principle of veritivity is related to four aspects of human society, including the purpose of existence, humankind’s shared purpose, activity and creativity for the common good, and life sense value (Whetsell, Gonzalez & Moreno-Fergusson, 2010)
  • Overall, Sister Roy believes that the adaptation model requires a clear thought process that is consistent and easy to understand
  • Thus, it is created in a manner that allows individuals to easily apply this information into their own practice

References

Barone, S.H., Callista, R. & Frederickson, C.K. (2008). Instruments used in Roy adaptation model-based research: review, critique and future directions. Nursing Science Quarterly, 21 (4), 353-362. DOI:  10.1177/0894318408323491

Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2010). Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice. [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved from http://digitalbookshelf.southuniversity.edu/books/9781449622541/id/ch02

Callista, R. (2011). Research based on the Roy adaptation model: last 25 years. Nursing Science Quarterly, 24 (4), 312-320. DOI:10.1177/0894318411419218

Callista, R. (2011). Extending the Roy adaption model to meet changing global needs. Nursing Science Quarterly,  24(4), 345-351. DOI:10.1177/0894318411419210

Callista, R. (2007). Update from the future: thinking of theorist Callista Roy. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20 (2), 113-116. DOI: 10.1177/0894318407299848

Creasia, J.L. & Friberg, E.E. (2011). Conceptual foundation: the bridge to professional nursing practice. (5th ed). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier, Mosby

Fawcett, J. (2005). Using the Roy adaptation model to guide nursing research. Nursing Science Quarterly, 18 (4), 320-323. DOI: 10.1177/0894318405280352

Frederickson, K. (2011). Callista  Roy’s adaption model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 24 (4), 301-303. DOI: 10.1177/0894318411419215

Nursing theory. (2013) Retrieved from http://www.nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Sister-Callista-Roy.php Jones and Bartlett Learning. Retrieved from: samples.jbpub.com/9781449626013/72376_ch10_masters.pdf

Parker, M., & Lynn, C. (2006). Nuring theories & nursing practice. Retrieved from http://www.r2library.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/resource/title/080361196X

Roy Adaptation Model. (2013). Retrieved from: http://www.nursing-theory.org?theories-and-models/roy-adaptation-model.php

Roy, sister Callista. (2012). In Mosby’s dictionary of medicine, Nursing & Health Professions. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences. Retrieved from http://thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=suo&turl=http%3A%2F%2Fliterati.credoreference.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fehsmosbymed%2Froy_sister_callista%2F0

Whetsell, M.V., Gonzalez, Y.M., & Moreno-Fergusson, M.E. (2010). Models and theories focused on a systems approach. In Butts, J.B & Rich, K.L., Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice. (2nd ed). pp 414-424. Jones & Barlett Learning, LLC

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