Socialization, Article Writing Example
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Socialization, according to Encyclopedia Britannica (2012), is the process by which people becomes familiar with and adjust themselves to the interpersonal relationships of their social world. In order to be fully socialized these individuals have to go through a process in which they will eventually learn new ideas about themselves, about the people they are interacting with in the same environment, acquire new identity and will often form lasting relationships, which may decisively shape their ultimate future, according to Steckley and Clark (2007).
The Socialization Process
The process of socialization starts at birth where it is initiated by agents like doctors, nurses, parents, who will help to divide the group into males and females and provide the necessary training, so that the males will become bread winners and the females adopting the reproductive responsibility, according to Steckley and Clark (2007).
Steckley and Clark (2007), further expound that in the socialization process, social order is involuntarily and coercively transferred into the minds and bodies on young babies, and rules, expectations and identities as well as behaviors that seem acceptable to society, are also transferred from generation to generation to ensure perpetuity
Nursing Socialization Models
In terms of individuals having attained the basic levels of socialization and are desirous of entering the nursing profession, there are various developed theories on the models of socialization that prevails in the discipline that will prove useful to these aspirants.
Davis or Doctrine Conversion Model
This model according to Phillips (2012), encompass six stages, with student nurses initially making entrance into the profession with initial innocence in which they mentally have preconceived notion of the career is about, and may become shattered by the experiences that are totally different.
Other stages like labeled, recognition of incongruity, role simulation or psyching out, increasing role simulation, provisional internalization and stable internationalization follows, and require students to make adjustments in terms of their behaviors, so that they can match the demands made on them by prevailing values of the profession as well as their current work setting requirements (Phillips, 2012).
The Simpson Model
Nurses embracing the Simpson Model are required to display proficiencies in their specific work tasks, become attached to other members of staff in the same environment, and internalize the values of the profession as well as ensure specific behavioral patterns are adopted, in order for them to be classified as fully socialized, according to Phillips (2012).
This model seems more advanced in nature than the Davis model in terms of the starting point, and would be more appropriate for student nurses to embrace, after striving to attain the requirements of the first model, which lays the foundation for advancement to the next level of socialization.
The Hinshaw Model
This socialization model according to Phillips (2012), encompass three phases. The first require nursing student to transfer their role expectation to that of societal groups, before making significant attachment to others in their respective groups, and then be able to detect incongruity between anticipated roles and those that manifest in the personnel they have become attached to in the second stage.
The third stage of Hinshaw socialization model demand student nurses to successfully internalize the role of values and behavior, in order to advantageously position themselves to resolve future conflicts that may develop between nurses and patients as well as among the nursing population in general (Phillips, 2012).
Career Development Models
In terms of models for career development Phillips (2012), cited Kramer, Dalton and Benner Models as ideal, because these socialized nurses at this stage would have achieve congruence between the norms and values that were expected from the programs they were pursuing, as well as have developed realities of their individual work setting.
Kramer Model requite a four stage approach which Phillips (2012) lists as (a), skill and mastery, (b) social integration, (c) moral outrage and (d) conflict resolution.
Advance student nurses at this stage will be challenged to use the skills they have mastered to adequately meet their organizational needs, and in the process make moral adjustments to meet the expected standards through the process of conflict resolution where necessary.
Daltons Career Stage Model on the other hand, implores nurses to initially work as subordinates under mentors, then move to an independent stage after becoming more competent to provide guidance to others at lower rungs in the process.
Finally, Dalton proposed that after these accomplishments, that these nurses will be able to be promoted to positions of leadership in their organizations, and fill positions such as nurse managers, internal entrepreneur, or even innovators who are successfully socializing different batches of incoming students nurses, as well as those more advance in training (Phillips, 2012).
Benner or the Nursing Experience Model covers 5 distinct socialization stages according to Phillips (2012). The incoming nurses will to go from being novices to an advance beginners, competent practitioners, and proficient practitioners, to finally to expert practitioners, after a period that should exceed 5 years at the minimum.
Benner believes that through this socialization process under his model, incoming nurses with no experience, limited performance capability and high levels of inflexibility, will be transformed to become performers that will be described as fluid, flexible, and highly proficient, at the end of the process (Phillips, 2012).
Benner went further to argue that these nurses will be able to operate without rules, guidelines or maxims, and will be better able to apply their understanding to situations and demands that require effective decision-making skills, intuitiveness and analytical skills (Phillips, 2012), so that at the end of the day the organizations that serve will advance in leaps and bounds, especially in terms of the process in which student nurses are socialized into the profession.
Nurses entering the profession should ensure that they avail themselves of all the available socialization models, as they will provide valuable insights as to how they can move from the novice stage to become expert practitioners that can provide high quality of leadership to organizations they will serve. This is because all models are different and provide unique approach that may be more compatible to the different personality and the types of early socialization each student nurse may have experience in their earlier development stage, before entering the profession.
Finally, these socialization models will also help to reduce the unrealistic expectations that student nurses often bring with them to training and in the final analysis prevent many who may be exposed to certain harsh realities to remain in the profession for the good of the stakeholders, especially the thousands patients they will be able to competently serve in the years to come.
Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. (2012) The Socialization Process Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/561041/sports/253559/The-socialization-process , on 05/28/12
Steckley, J. & Clark, A. (2007), Socialization (Chapter4) Introduction to Sociology Retrieved from http://www.sociology.org/courses/sociology-100-introduction-sociology/unit-4-socialization on 05/28/12
Phillips, S., (2007). Professional Nursing 1: Socialization Florida International University Retrieved from http://chua2.fiu.edu/faculty/phillips/NUR3825/SocSocialization.htm on 05/28/12
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