Article critique 1
Counselor Education and Supervision: The Development of the CACREP Doctoral Standards
By Carla Adkison-Bradley
The purpose of this article is twofold. First it evaluates the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs’ guidelines and accreditation standards, which created doctoral preparation in counselor education. Also, it explores contemporary issues affecting advanced counselor education training and projects implications redesigning doctoral standards in the future (Bradley, 2013).
This researcher begins the exploration from a perspective of an expert editor by captioning ‘The Emergence of Doctoral Preparation in Counselor Education;’ ‘Development of the Doctoral
CACREP Standards;’ ‘CACREP Doctoral Standards;’ ‘1988 CACREP Doctoral Standards;’
‘1988 CACREP Doctoral Standards; ‘2001 CACREP Doctoral Standards;’ ‘2009 CACREP Doctoral Standards;’ ‘Implications for Future Training’ and Concluding Remarks: Recommendations for Future Standards Revisions’ (Bradley, 2013).
Consequently, each category outlined above was comprehensively discussed in detail as it related to doctorial training standards over the period of time desired for this review. If this article and the assumptions advanced by the author were to provide evidences for changes in the discipline, it would, however, be weak. Editorials provide the lowest evidence since they are considered opinions of experts. Psychology requires evidence from well-organized randomized cohort studies for application in the discipline.
Subsequently the author concluded the report by making valuable recommendation for changes, which could form the hypothesis for further organized studies. They include the expectations for counselor education scholars can initiate significant change that could have far-reaching effects.’ Another valuable hypothesis emerging from this discussions advanced in the article pertains to, ‘Although the present standards have acknowledged preparing scholars as a primary obligation of doctoral training, they are less clear on how programs should specifically attain this goal’ (Bradley, 2013, pp 49).
Adkison-Bradley Carla. Counselor Education and Supervision: The Development of the CACREP Doctoral Standards. Journal of Counseling & Development. Vol 91. 2013. Print
Article Critique 11
Supervision of midwives: Reacting to the future?
This article is an editorial of expert professional publication, the British Journal of Midwifery. No author was given the publishing honor. However, it can be considered an opinion of eloquence. The author approached supervision of midwives from the premise of how they react to the future. Further, limitations in supervision exposure; diversifying supervision; disciplinary supervision; proactive and reactive supervision; cycle of supervision; raising the profile of supervision; demonstrating proactive activities; the future and a brief conclusion were the highlights presented in this article (British Journal of Midwifery, 2013).
Notable features, which kept the reading audience, remarkably engaged were illustrations outlining the cycle preventing promotion of the role of the supervisor of midwives; template for meeting minutes; template for new agenda and an highlighted summary of the author’s opinion on the topic. The article concludes with the assumption for evolution in supervision to be more effective a proactive approach needs to be adopted (British Journal of Midwifery, 2013).
However, despite the eloquence of these conclusions advanced, they do not provide adequate evidences for transference into a clinical setting to effect relevant changes in midwifery. Being the perspective of an expert and not findings of a scientific research study it is limited towards providing a level V11 support. Editorials provide the lowest evidence since they are considered opinions of experts. Midwifery requires evidence from well-organized randomized cohort studies for application in the discipline.
British Journal of Midwifery. Supervision of midwives: Reacting to the future? British Journal of Midwifery. Vol 21, 2; pp 120-130; 2013.Print
Constructing Professional Identity in an Online Graduate Clinical Training Program: Possibilities for online supervision
By Wayne Perry
This article outlines results from a longitudinal research providing evidence regarding ‘the process through which master’s degree students are able to construct their professional identity in an online environment. Both supervisors and students reported phenomenological evidence that professional identity can in fact be constructed through group interactions based in an internet class experience’(Perry, 2012, abstract).
Researchers began their study with the assumption that trainees do better with clinical supervision than mere didactic class work alone. They continued by defining key terms, which were important to identifying the most appropriate literature for investigating the phenomenon. These included supervision as the independent variable and key concept encompassing competence-based approaches (Perry, 2012).
As the researcher continued to explore Constructing Professional Identity in an Online Graduate Clinical Training Program, Possibilities for online supervision a number of theoretical perspectives were embraced in linking data retrieved from findings. References were made to Narrative therapy and transactional theoretical assumptions. The article further described sample selection process; data collection procedures; analysis; results; discussion and conclusion.
From this paradigm the article could be considered a research document without scrutinizing its internal and external validity potential. A great strength is that these findings could produce valuable applications into evidence based practice in internet education since it is a level V being derived from at least one control study. The researcher concluded that while the results are heartening a limitation which ought to be acknowledged is that just one university population was reviewed. Therefore, generalization towards similar populations should be applied cautiously (Perry, 2012).
Perry Wayne. Constructing Professional Identity in an Online Graduate Clinical Training Program: Possibilities for online supervision. Journal of Systemic Therapies, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 53–67. 2012. Print
Clinical supervision: a review of the evidence base.
By Jane Wright
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the concept clinical supervision in nursing and how it has been defined overtime. It can be considered an editorial because expert advice on the issue is given and no scientific research components have been discovered in the writing. However, evidence based practices pertaining to clinical supervision were reviewed from supporting literature references (Wright, 2012).
Jane Wright (2012) opened the discussion with fashions and fads in nursing moving into a comprehensive literature review reflection on clinical supervision. Finally, explorative highlights were on reflection and education. Reflection was used as a landmark concept was guiding the evaluation. In the closing phases of the article Wright (2012) articulates the reflection perspective by confirming that some authors endorsed the value of reflective practice and clinical supervision. However, answers regarding how it impacts learning are still obscure (Wright, 2012).
Therefore, the recommendation is that scientific research be conducted in this field to provide more profound evidence in the practice of clinical supervision. This article is merely level V11 evidence, which is very weak as evidence based projection because it is not an independent study in itself.
Wright Jane. Clinical supervision: a review of the evidence base. Nursing Standard. 27, 3, 44-49. 2012 Print
You’ve either got [it] or you haven’t’ – conflicted supervision of preservice teachers
By Cheryl Sim
The purpose of this article is to share perspectives on preservice teacher supervision since there is limited literature in this subject. Cheryl Sim (2010) contends ‘it is critical that the interpersonal demands of supervision become an important focus of the partnership between universities and schools if practicums are to be beneficial to all stakeholders’ (Sim, 2010, pp 139). Key concepts explored were initial teacher education; professional community; supervision and teacher identity (Sim, 2011).
Sim (2010) addressed the issue eloquently introducing a relevant theoretical framework through which she could adequately elaborate applying evidence based studies. Emotional forms and narrative inquiry (three dimensional approaches) were the two theories employed. Thereafter, an unusual research method emerges whereby the author explores one qualitative research study for measuring the assumption ‘it is critical that the interpersonal demands of supervision become an important focus of the partnership between universities and schools if practicums are to be beneficial to all stakeholders’ (Sim, 2011, pp 139).
From this study Sim (2011) collects data and identifies three contextual factors related in stories from the qualitative study as evidence towards validating the hypothesis. They pertained to maturity of preservice teachers; the preferred collegial practice of the teacher conducting the supervision and the professional recognition offered by the school. Further, in confirming her findings from the one qualitative study used in this evaluation Sim (2011) applied the theory of narrative inquiry in showing its significance on constructing teacher identity through effective supervision (Sim, 2011, pp 139).
However, the methodology applied in this presentation raises some concerns of scientific research in relation to how the level and type could be identified. The speculation is that modern scientists ought to review the efficacy of this model as an addition to the body of research knowledge
Sims Cheryl. You’ve either got [it] or you haven’t’ – conflicted supervision of preservice Teachers. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education Vol. 39, No. 2, 139–149. 2011. Print
The Normative Foundations of Unethical Supervision In Organizations
By Unal, Warren and Chen
Then purpose of this article is to explore applications of normative theory to supervision in organizations. Researchers posit that ‘in the absence of a normative grounding, scholars have implicitly adopted different intuitive ethical criteria, which has contributed to confusion regarding unethical and ethical supervisory behaviors as well as the proliferation of overlapping terms and fragmentation of research’(Unal et.al, 2012, pp 5). Researchers then employed a review of literature, which was expected to add towards the body of knowledge on the subject. Key words unethical supervision; unethical leadership and abusive supervision guided the literature search as well as the theoretical application (Unal et.al, 2012).
As they continued into the article researchers seemed to engage in a literary analysis by highlighting that many studies do not focus on the not so pleasant aspects of supervision and they support their assumption by use of historical evidence from studies retrieved. Subsequently, they delivered a profound critique of the unethical supervision literature (Unal et.al, 2012).
Further captions embodied explanations and descriptions pertaining to conceptualizations of unethical supervision; drawbacks of unethical supervision research; lack of normative grounding; unethical supervision versus lack of ethical supervision; proliferation of overlapping constructs and toward a normative framework of unethical supervision. Employing scientific research analysis techniques these researchers examined normative theories in relation to unethical supervision as if it were the distinct tool measuring the independent variable. This is eloquently presented through applications of specific elements of the theoretical framework. They include deontology; rights, justice, teleology and virtue (Unal et.al, 2012).
Ultimately, after completing their coding construct analysis of relevant literature the researcher concluded that their comprehensive multi-dimensional conception of unethical supervision revealed the need more profound research in this discipline of supervision. Previous studies did not go in-depth into rights and justice issues, which can present ethical discrepancies (Unal et.al, 2012). The methodology applied was scientific enough to deserve the usefulness of a level V research evidence category because it emerged from systematic reviews of descriptive or qualitative studies.
Unal, Ali. Warren, Daniel. & Chen, Chao. The Normative Foundations of Unethical Supervision In Organizations. J Bus Ethics, vol, 107; pp.5–19. 2012. Print
The risky business of supervision, 2: Gaining skills and knowledge
By British Journal of Midwifery
This article encompasses a case study report detailing the riskiness of supervision in midwifery clinical settings. The author’s assumption emerged from the premise that while the role of supervisors of midwives (SoM) regarding risk management is carefully outlined in Rule 15 of the Midwives Rules and Standards, ensuring that incidents are properly notified remained a matter of concern. Consequently, the purpose of this case study embodied a detailed exploration the phenomenon of statutory supervision and their role in notification of serious untoward incidents (British Journal of Midwifery, 2011).
Further methodology, data collection strategies, sample population and results were tendered before getting deeper into the case study analysis. The researcher’s results explained the preparation of the supervisor of midwives programme; practical application/ the doing; local supervising authority framework and ongoing continual professional development (British Journal of Midwifery, 2011).
In explaining limitations, making recommendations and arriving at conclusions the researcher acknowledged that the case study was just a glimpse of the real world phenomenon. As such, it does not provide a blueprint for similar care settings, but can guide further research based on specific of that organizational environment. However, being level V1 evidence it can be a valid application of performance improvement in that particular clinical environment. Precisely, evidence was obtained from a single quantitative descriptive or any qualitative study.
British Journal of Midwifery. The risky business of supervision, 2: Gaining skills and knowledge. British Journal of Midwifery. Vol 19, No 7, pp 448-452
A positive postdoctoral experience is related to quality Supervision and career mentoring, collaborations, Networking and a nurturing research environment
By Amelia K. Scaffidi and Judith E. Berman
This article focuses on a comprehensive investigation into ‘whether quality supervision, career mentoring, collaboration, networking and a nurturing research environment makes a positive difference in the experiences and productivity of postdoctoral researchers’ (Scaffidi & Berman, 2011, pp 687). Key words postdocs, mentoring, collaborations, networking and research environment created research variables (Scaffidi & Berman, 2011).
After establishing the basis of their investigation these researchers identified their method as being a cohort study with applications of a qualitative design. The instrument utilized were interviewing schedules from a sample of 204 post doctorial students. Analysis of results catered towards interpreting quality of supervision and mentoring; career mentoring, advancement and future career prospects; collaborations and networking and research environment (Scaffidi & Berman, 2011).
In making conclusive statements on this study researchers disclosed their disappointment in realizing that ‘job insecurity and lack of a career structure are ongoing concerns for postdocs’ and not adequate supervision and mentoring as they predicted. The heartening prediction emerging from this discovery was that a clear association between quality supervision and the importance of taking responsibility for their future academic career. Therefore, this study provided new knowledge within the discipline as well as establishing grounds for further research on the phenomenon. It can be considered a level V evidence since it was derived from a well-designed case-control and cohort study (Scaffidi & Berman, 2011).
Scaffidi, Amelia. & Berman, Judith. A positive postdoctoral experience is related to quality supervision and career mentoring, collaborations, networking and a nurturing research environment. High Educ vol 62; pp. 685–698. 2011.Print
Managing Worldview Influences: Self-Awareness and Self-Supervision in a Cross-Cultural Therapeutic Relationship
By Luis Vargus and Colwick M. Wilson
The research purpose while not clearly defined encompassed an assessment of how world view influences affect self-awareness and self-supervision in a cross-cultural therapeutic relationship. These researchers preamble significant differences between mental health professionals in the United States of American and those practicing in Australia; in relation to managing world view influences. An assumption guiding this qualitative analysis is that ‘outside the United States, shifting demographic trends have intensified the need for mental health practitioners to be adequately prepared for clinical work with growing immigrant populations’ (Vargus & Wilson, 2011, pp 105).
A social science research methodological approach was adapted with application of grounded theoretical perspectives, which meant that researchers’ intention was to develop a theoretical framework emerging from their results. They recruited a sample of 22 master’s level marriage and family therapist interns (MFT) from a snowball sampling strategy. The specific instrument used to collect data was an interviewing schedule highlighting concept variables ‘perceptions of their efforts at building rapport awareness; cultural self-awareness; implications of cultural biases in therapy, and approach to managing the influence of culturally informed patterns and values on case conceptualization’ (Vargus & Wilson, 2011, pp 102).
Data analysis was distributed into four main categories. They were identified as passive interactions; active interactions; proposed interaction and negative interactions. In alignment with the grounded theoretical model these researchers designed a circle depicting the theoretical assumptions emerging from their results. It embodied highlights of negative influences from the therapist worldview and therapist approach to the culturally different client (Vargus & Wilson, 2011).
After reviewing sub categories researchers concluded emphasis must be placed on self-as-therapist with its associating influences within the therapeutic relationship. They wish to offer these results as evidence of their conclusion. In analysis this study embraced valid scientific methods which can provide a level 11 since the results were obtained from at least one well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Vargus & Wilson, 2011).
Vargus, Luis., & and Wilson Colwick. Managing Worldview Influences: Self-Awareness and Self-Supervision in a Cross-Cultural Therapeutic Relationship. Journal of Family Psychotherapy vol 22; pp 97-113. 2011. Print
Defining moments in practice. Clinical supervision as a method of Promoting critical reflection in Fieldwork: A qualitative inquiry.
By Margaret Pack
This is a qualitative inquiry exploring interactions between supervisee and supervisors as they engage in clinical rotation practices. The researcher offered and extensive literature review before engaging readers in the methodology itself. It highlighted a programme overview and role of clinical supervisor. It was not clear whether she was just using the introduction to tell readers about interactions pertaining to relationships between supervisors and supervisees or specifics concerning the research project (Pack, 2011).
In continuing the article into the methodology it would appear that the researcher quotes the critical reflective theorizing as a method whereas it should merely be a premise for guiding analysis of data. A sample of 25 clinical supervisors and 25 supervisees are presented within a research context. The data analysis section then explains how coding of data retrieved was conducted. Specifics related to the instrument were not mentioned. However, results pertained towards interpretations of supervisor perspectives of ‘most difficult scenarios’ raised in clinical supervision (Pack, 2011).
Conclusions pointed in the direction of providing adequate time and resource in clinical supervisors’ training; infrastructural support and sensitizing supervisors to their dual role of clinical supervisee’s line manager and clinical supervisor. No limitations to this study was mentioned, but based on the methodology it has the potential to offer a level V1 evidence because results emerged from a single qualitative or quantitative study (Pack, 2011).
Pack, Margaret. Defining moments in practice. Clinical supervision as a method of promoting Critical reflection in fieldwork: A qualitative inquiry. AOTEAROA New Zealand Social Work .Vol 23, No 4; pp 45-50