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Nine Ideal Features of a Mental Health Intervention, GCSE Coursework Example

Pages: 11

Words: 2888

GCSE Coursework

Abstract

The United States continues to expand its scope of knowledge and resources to improve access to healthcare services for millions of people. Most importantly, this system must be flexible in nature and aim to accommodate large groups of patients across general practice and specialty areas. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies that encompass a comprehensive view of healthcare practice and the tools that are available to improve quality of life for many patients. these factors also demonstrate the need to have a shared vision so that healthcare practice is successful and timely in supporting the future directions of care that involve coverage for all persons and new opportunities to improve existing programs to expand access for specialty and vulnerable population groups.

The health system in the United States continues to evolve in order to accommodate different directions and focus areas that will have a lasting impact on the health and wellbeing of millions of people. This is a comprehensive process that requires the input and guidance of many different knowledge bases and resources so that patients are able to receive the care and treatment that is necessary in a timely manner. Access to healthcare in many communities throughout the United States is difficult and often impossible to sustain, given the limitations that exist in securing access to basic healthcare needs, such as preventive care and other resources. These issues must be taken into consideration when framing the needs of the modern healthcare system and the opportunities that are available to improve patient care outcomes and quality of life for patients.

The ideal healthcare system for the United States must encompass a variety of specific focus areas that will be cost effective and appropriate in meeting the needs of all population groups, including vulnerable populations, and in supporting healthcare reform in different ways. These characteristics are essential to the development of new strategies to improve the type of care patients receive, whether specialized, preventive, or primary in nature. These factors will translate into high quality care that will support the population in the desired manner. Most importantly, this system must encompass a variety of tools and resources that tap into national, state, and local strengths so that the healthcare system utilizes its resources wisely. These practices will ensure that patients receive the best possible care and treatment, even if they possess limited financial means. The following discussion will address the challenges related to improving the US healthcare system in greater detail and will support the continued growth and development of the practice environment in order to accomplish the intended objectives with the optimization of resources, including those which are allocated for the mental health sector.

The US Healthcare System in Illinois

In all states, there are significant challenges associated with achieving a patient-centered model of care because resources are sorely lacking in some communities to meet these needs effectively. Therefore, it is important to identify some of these issues and to better understand the role of healthcare resources in order to accommodate patients effectively and with the necessary focus in mind. These practices will ensure that patients receive the best possible treatment under the circumstances and that greater access to care will be achieved through new strategies to improve the quality of the system as a whole. These practices will aim to support a model that references the key strengths of healthcare practice, including but not limited to the knowledge base that is readily available.

The State of Illinois must adhere to a model that recommends that patients receive the services that are required to improve their health. At the same time, the decisions that are made regarding the health and wellbeing of local residents must be shared among patients and their healthcare providers, as noted in the following context: “For many health situations in which there’s not one clearly superior course of treatment, shared decision making can ensure that medical care better aligns with patients’ preferences and values. One way to implement this approach is by using patient decision aids — written materials, videos, or interactive electronic presentations designed to inform patients and their families about care options; each option’s outcomes, including benefits and possible side effects; the health care team’s skills; and costs” (Lee & Emanuel, 2013, p. 6). Under these conditions, it is likely that there will continue to be new directions that are required to accommodate patients and to be proactive in meeting patient care needs through shared decision-making that will promote a more efficient healthcare process for many people (Lee & Emanuel, 2013). These factors represent an opportunity to examine the different areas of need that will have a lasting impact on outcomes and that will aim to support a strategy to ensure that shared decision-making is a critical priority for the residents of Illinois and for those in other states.

There are critical factors associated with state-related mandates involving healthcare. As a result, these must be examined closely in order to improve the visibility of the healthcare system in its efforts to improve access for patients in need. These contributions to healthcare will support the development of new strategies to improve access to primary care, preventive services, and mental health care at the highest possible levels. For the latter, mental health care in Illinois and across other states is largely disconnected and demonstrates a significant lack of focus and attention on the mental health of millions of people, as this area is largely ignored due to lack of funding and other resources (Barry & Huskamp, 2011). Mental health must be a critical priority of modern healthcare practice because is a largely unmet need and does not provide adequate support to the millions who are underserved (Barry & Huskamp, 2011). It is known that “Lack of integration between primary care and specialty behavioral health care and poor coordination for patients with coexisting mental health and addiction disorders are endemic to our delivery system and are exacerbated by the prevailing payment methods. Lack of coordination comes at a high price. People with serious mental illnesses have higher rates of other illnesses and die earlier, on average, than the general population, largely from treatable conditions associated with modifiable risk factors such as smoking, obesity, substance use, and inadequate medical care. And mental health and addiction disorders often go untreated in primary care” (Barry & Huskamp, 2011, p. 973). These conditions perhaps reflect a fear of addressing mental health behaviors in a comprehensive context, or they demonstrate a lack of support for these endeavors. Regardless of the circumstances, mental health services must be a critical priority of modern healthcare practice settings so that patients are well-served in form of a proper diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent other complications that could have a lasting impact on outcomes for Americans.

In contrast to the universal healthcare strategy in Canada, the US system focuses on privately-sponsored insurance plans rather than publicly-sponsored programs, with the exception of Medicare and Medicaid. Since all coverage is universal and alike in nature for Canadians, they face longer wait times for surgeries and other services in many cases. However, they are not required to assume the expense of these services, which is in contrast to many private insurance plans offered in the United States, where there is a required out-of-pocket expense in the form of a deductible. Therefore, these systems possess different expectations and a difference in population statistics also demonstrates differentiation in these principles and areas of focus.

Financing Strategy to Accommodate Human Needs

Within the healthcare sector, the concept of value is of critical importance in shaping the direction and visibility of the practice environment and its impact on patient care (Porter, 2010). From this perspective, it may be argued that “Value encompasses many of the other goals already embraced in healthcare, such as quality, safety, patient centeredness, and cost containment, and integrates them. It is also fundamental to achieving other important goals such as improving equity and expanding access at reasonable cost” (Porter, 2010, p. 1). In this context, it is important to identify the specific areas whereby healthcare practice might be able improve its value through strategies that are designed to promote the prevention of chronic illness and other diseases through preventive care and treatment across all age groups (Porter, 2010). These practices will demonstrate the importance of new perspectives that aim to accommodate patients as they often struggle to obtain access in the form of primary care appointments and other needs (Porter, 2010).

The financial impact of healthcare services is significant, particularly when few efforts are made to improve upon existing conditions and to understand the overall impact of these costs on the burden of the healthcare system for all taxpayers (Berwick & Hackbarth, 2012). From this perspective, waste in the current US healthcare system is a significant challenge that continues to evolve, in spite of the creation of the Affordable Care Act and other tools to improve cost efficiency throughout the system (Berwick & Hackbarth, 2012). These circumstances, therefore, require a high level understanding and acceptance of the challenges related to healthcare practice that have a lasting impact on areas such as failure to provide adequate care to patients in need; overtreating patients for conditions under which less treatment is ideal; the bureaucratic nature of the healthcare system and the administrative burden that exists; poor pricing strategies; and an excess level of fraud and waste throughout the system (Berwick & Hackbarth, 2012). These findings suggest that organizations must continue to explore their options with respect to patient care needs and to improve their understanding of how to improve cost effectiveness throughout the system as part of a larger strategy for growth and change (Berwick & Hackbarth, 2012). The cost containment strategy for the US healthcare system must be comprehensive yet practical in nature. There is no specific solution that will accommodate all parties; therefore, a variety of conditions must be explored in order to determine how to reduce waste, and promote efficiency, such as the increased utilization of advanced practice nurses to fill areas where voids currently exist in care and treatment. Furthermore, this strategy must consider the role of insurance coverage supplemented by employers for those who qualify and to alleviate some of the out-of-pocket burden for the consumer population in this regard.

Services Provided and Patient Population

The integration of technology into the modern healthcare system in many different ways continues to be a critical priority that aims to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness across many different areas (Chandra & Skinner, 2012). Under these conditions, it is likely that organizations will continue to examine their own priorities with respect to technology with the anticipation that they will recognize its value and the benefits of integration into an existing system (Chandra & Skinner, 2012). The integration of technology in different forms, such as through electronic health records and medication dispensation programs that aim to promote efficiency and reduce errors that may impact the lives of patients (Chandra & Skinner, 2012). Most importantly, organizations within the healthcare sector must be fully prepared to manage technologies through a successful integration strategy, accompanied by upgrades and other improvements as necessary to enable the system to remain sustainable over the long term (Chandra & Skinner, 2012). Although the costs of implementation and future upgrades may be quite high, these systems are of critical importance in promoting a broader approach to enabling access to care for larger groups of people who currently may not have sufficient access to these services (Chandra & Skinner, 2012). This process will support the continued growth and evolution of the system in order to accommodate patients across many areas that are underserved and who face critical challenges that are currently unmet (Chandra & Skinner, 2012). Therefore, the growth and expansion of technology is a critical area where many improvements are required in order to accommodate patients and to be effective in meeting patient care needs for this population at a higher level (Chandra & Skinner, 2012).

For patients facing mental health issues, the process of intervention must be appropriate, timely, and sensitive to their needs, given the goals and objectives of the patient, the level of implementation that is required, the number of side effects that occur, and other factors that contribute to the overall effectiveness of an intervention of this nature (Bond, Drake, & Becker, 2009). When pharmacological interventions are necessary, they must coincide with all requirements related to safety and support for these patients, along with other areas that will encourage their ability to recover and improve their quality of life (Bond et.al, 2009). It is expected that these tools will also reflect the importance of advancing healthcare outcomes for those with mental health concerns through the efforts made with the resources that are available (Bond et.al, 2009).

Another population group that must be an integral factor in an improved healthcare system in the United States is those who face chronic diseases and subsequent multiple morbidities (Tinetti, Fried, & Boyd, 2012). An updated strategy must be able to address the following: “To ensure safe and effective care for adults with multiple chronic conditions, particularly the millions of baby boomers entering their years of declining health and increasing health service use, health care must shift its current focus on managing innumerable individual diseases. To align with the clinical reality of multimorbidity, care should evolve from a disease orientation to a patient goal orientation, focused on maximizing the health goals of individual patients with unique sets of risks, conditions, and priorities” (Tinetti et.al, 2012, p. 2493). Under these conditions, it is necessary to evaluate the conditions under which healthcare practice is likely to be achieved through the development of new strategies to address multiple chronic diseases in a single manner to improve efficiency and quality of care for these patients (Tinetti et.al, 2012).

Role of Advanced Practice Nurses in the System

Advanced practice nurses must play a significant role in the evolution of the modern healthcare system, as they continue to increase in number and significance to healthcare practice. In these roles, advanced practice nurses provide a level of expert knowledge, support, and guidance that is necessary to meet patient needs and to effectively treat large groups of patients in a timely manner so that their needs are met without delays or further complications (Shi & Singh, 2012). These factors also demonstrate the importance of the advanced practice nursing role in supporting patient outcomes over the long term across the populations with the greatest levels of need, such as older adults and patients with mental health concerns (Shi & Singh, 2012). In addition, these efforts will encourage the development of evidence-based practice solutions in order to demonstrate the value of this role in improving patient care quality across a variety of settings (Shi & Singh, 2012).

APNs must fill specific roles within the healthcare system, such as Mental Health Nurse Practitioners and Family Nurse Practitioners (Shi & Singh, 2012). Furthermore, the roles of Physician Assistant, Psychiatrists, and Family Physicians must also be considered as part of a larger framework to improve mental health treatment and services for this population (Shi & Singh, 2012). These roles must be collaborative in nature and provide a basis for examining new ideas to improve the lives of this population and to better understand the serious nature of mental health conditions and how to manage them as effectively as possible.

Conclusion

The ideal healthcare system in the 21st Century requires a high level of focus and attention on patients and their specific needs so that adequate resources are available to support patients across a variety of population groups. The underserved must be able to achieve improved access to care and treatment through the provision of health insurance with an adequate level of coverage, while also demonstrating the need for integrated technologies to promote cost effectiveness and to minimize errors in healthcare practice. Many underserved populations are likely to benefit from the tools and resources provided by advanced practice nurses in a variety of patient care environments, including clinics, hospitals, and community centers, along with other resources that will be used to improve patient care quality at the desired level without any restrictions. With this perspective in mind, the ideal healthcare system must convey the key principles associated with high quality care, continuous treatment, and other tools that will have a considerable impact on many patients across different population groups throughout the nation.

References

Barry, C. L., & Huskamp, H. A. (2011). Moving beyond parity—mental health and addiction care under the ACA. New England Journal of Medicine, 365(11), 973-975.

Berwick, D. M., & Hackbarth, A. D. (2012). Eliminating waste in US health care. Jama, 307(14), 1513-1516.

Bond, G. R., Drake, R. E., & Becker, D. R. (2010). Beyond evidence-based practice: Nine ideal features of a mental health intervention. Research on Social Work Practice, 20(5), 493-501.

Chandra, A., & Skinner, J. S. (2011). Technology growth and expenditure growth in health care (No. w16953). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Oshima Lee, E., & Emanuel, E. J. (2013). Shared decision making to improve care and reduce costs. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(1), 6-8.

Porter, M. E. (2010). What is value in health care?. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(26), 2477-2481.

Shi, L., & Singh, D. A. (2012). Essentials of the US health care system. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Tinetti, M. E., Fried, T. R., & Boyd, C. M. (2012). Designing health care for the most common chronic condition—multimorbidity. JAMA, 307(23), 2493-2494.

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